PLoS ONE 2019 ;14(5):e0216680. doi: PONE-D-19-07580. Epub.
Abstract: Pneumonia is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. How immune activation differs among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults with pneumonia is unknown. © PloS One.
Front Immunol 2019 ;10():785. doi: PMC6477036. Epub.
Abstract: HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART) have both been linked to dyslipidemia and increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Alterations in the composition of saturated (SaFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids are related to inflammation and CVD progression in HIV-uninfected (HIV-) populations. The relationships among the lipidome and markers of monocyte and immune activation in HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals are not well understood. Concentrations of serum lipids and their fatty acid composition were measured by direct infusion-tandem mass spectrometry in samples from 20 ART-treated HIV+ individuals and 20 HIV- individuals. HIV+ individuals had increased levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) with enrichment of SaFAs, including palmitic acid (16:0) and stearic acid (18:0), and these levels were directly associated with markers of monocyte (CD40, HLA-DR, TLR4, CD36) and serum inflammation (LBP, CRP). PUFA levels were reduced significantly in HIV+ individuals, and many individual PUFA species levels were inversely related to markers of monocyte activation, such as tissue factor, TLR4, CD69, and SR-A. Also in HIV+ individuals, the composition of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) was enriched for SaFAs; LPC species containing SaFAs were directly associated with IL-6 levels and monocyte activation. We similarly observed direct relationships between levels of SaFAs and inflammation in HIV uninfected individuals. Further, SaFA exposure altered monocyte subset phenotypes and inflammatory cytokine production . The lipidome is altered in ART-treated HIV infection, and may contribute to inflammation and CVD progression. Detailed lipidomic analyses may better assess CVD risk in both HIV+ and HIV- individuals than does traditional lipid profiling. © Frontiers In Immunology.
J Virus Erad 2019 Jan;5(1):28-32. doi: . Epub.
Abstract: The relationship between lipid levels in plasma and inflammatory indices is complex and fatty meals alter plasma inflammatory markers in people with diabetes. There is interest in monitoring the effects of interventions on plasma inflammatory and coagulation elements in people with HIV, as they have been linked to risk for morbid outcomes and HIV persistence. Understanding the effects of feeding and time of specimen acquisition is important for the correct scheduling of clinical sampling. © Journal Of Virus Eradication.
J. Infect. Dis. 2019 Jun;220(1):73-77. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jiz051. Epub.
Abstract: Circulating CD8+ T cells and monocytes are activated during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and colocalize in the aortas of simian immunodeficiency virus-infected nonhuman primates. We hypothesized that CD8+ T cells could exert a proatherosclerotic effect via paracrine actions on monocytes. We found that T-cell receptor-stimulated CD8+ T cells induce monocytes to express tissue factor, a potent activator of coagulation. Tumor necrosis factor was both necessary and sufficient for this effect. © The Journal Of Infectious Diseases.
Clin. Infect. Dis. 2018 Nov;():. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciy966. Epub.
Abstract: Despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infection remains associated with higher morbidity/mortality, driven- in part -by increased inflammation. The objective of this study is to identify associations between levels of plasma biomarkers of chronic inflammation, microbial translocation, and monocyte activation, measured prior to and during suppressive ART, with occurrence of non-AIDS events. © Clinical Infectious Diseases : An Official Publication Of The Infectious Diseases Society Of America.
AIDS Behav 2019 Mar;23(3):627-635. doi: 10.1007/s10461-018-2319-7. Epub.
Abstract: Symptom distress remains a challenging aspect of living with HIV. Physical activity is a promising symptom management strategy, but its effect on symptom distress has not been examined in a large, longitudinal HIV-infected cohort. We hypothesized that higher physical activity intensity would be associated with reduced symptom distress. We included 5370 people living with HIV (PLHIV) who completed patient-reported assessments of symptom distress, physical activity, alcohol and substance use, and HIV medication adherence between 2005 and 2016. The most frequent and burdensome symptoms were fatigue (reported by 56%), insomnia (50%), pain (46%), sadness (45%), and anxiety (45%), with women experiencing more symptoms and more burdensome symptoms than men. After adjusting for age, sex, race, time, HIV medication adherence, alcohol and substance use, site, and HIV RNA, greater physical activity intensity was associated with lower symptom intensity. Although individual symptoms may be a barrier to physical activity (e.g. pain), the consistent association between symptoms with physical activity suggests that more intense physical activity could mitigate symptoms experienced by PLHIV. © AIDS And Behavior.
J. Clin. Invest. 2018 Nov;128(11):5083-5094. doi: 10.1172/JCI120245. Epub.
Abstract: Immune nonresponder (INR) HIV-1-infected subjects are characterized by their inability to reconstitute the CD4+ T cell pool after antiretroviral therapy. This is linked to poor clinical outcome. Mechanisms underlying immune reconstitution failure are poorly understood, although, counterintuitively, INRs often have increased frequencies of circulating CD4+ T cells in the cell cycle. While cycling CD4+ T cells from healthy controls and HIV+ patients with restored CD4+ T cell numbers complete cell division in vitro, cycling CD4+ T cells from INRs do not. Here, we show that cells with the phenotype and transcriptional profile of Tregs were enriched among cycling cells in health and in HIV infection. Yet there were diminished frequencies and numbers of Tregs among cycling CD4+ T cells in INRs, and cycling CD4+ T cells from INR subjects displayed transcriptional profiles associated with the impaired development and maintenance of functional Tregs. Flow cytometric assessment of TGF-β activity confirmed the dysfunction of Tregs in INR subjects. Transcriptional profiling and flow cytometry revealed diminished mitochondrial fitness in Tregs among INRs, and cycling Tregs from INRs had low expression of the mitochondrial biogenesis regulators peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC1α) and transcription factor A for mitochondria (TFAM). In vitro exposure to IL-15 allowed cells to complete division, restored the expression of PGC1α and TFAM, and regenerated mitochondrial fitness in the cycling Tregs of INRs. Our data suggest that rescuing mitochondrial function could correct the immune dysfunction characteristic of Tregs in HIV-1-infected subjects who fail to restore CD4+ T cells during antiretroviral therapy. © The Journal Of Clinical Investigation.
J. Clin. Invest. 2018 Aug;128(9):4074-4085. doi: 10.1172/JCI120549. Epub.
Abstract: HIV posttreatment controllers (PTCs) represent a natural model of sustained HIV remission, but they are rare and little is known about their viral reservoir. We obtained 1,450 proviral sequences after near-full-length amplification for 10 PTCs and 16 posttreatment noncontrollers (NCs). Before treatment interruption, the median intact and total reservoir size in PTCs was 7-fold lower than in NCs, but the proportion of intact, defective, and total clonally expanded proviral genomes was not significantly different between the 2 groups. Quantification of total but not intact proviral genome copies predicted sustained HIV remission as 81% of NCs, but none of the PTCs had a total proviral genome greater than 4 copies per million peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The results highlight the restricted intact and defective HIV reservoir in PTCs and suggest that total proviral genome burden could act as the first biomarker for identifying PTCs. Total and defective but not intact proviral copy numbers correlated with levels of cell-associated HIV RNA, activated NK cell percentages, and both HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ responses. These results support the concept that defective HIV genomes can lead to viral antigen production and interact with both the innate and adaptive immune systems. © The Journal Of Clinical Investigation.
Sci Rep 2018 Jun;8(1):8973. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-27190-x. Epub.
Abstract: Cytokines are soluble factors that mediate cell-cell communications in multicellular organisms. Recently, another system of cell-cell communication was discovered, which is mediated by extracellular vesicles (EVs). Here, we demonstrate that these two systems are not strictly separated, as many cytokines in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo are released in EV-encapsulated forms and are capable of eliciting biological effects upon contact with sensitive cells. Association with EVs is not necessarily a property of a particular cytokine but rather of a biological system and can be changed upon system activation. EV-encapsulated cytokines were not detected by standard cytokine assays. Deciphering the regulatory mechanisms of EV-encapsulation will lead to a better understanding of cell-cell communications in health and disease. © Scientific Reports.
J. Clin. Invest. 2018 Jul;128(7):2763-2773. doi: 10.1172/JCI97377. Epub.
Abstract: Vaccine responses vary by geographic location. We have previously described how HIV-associated inflammation leads to fibrosis of secondary lymph nodes (LNs) and T cell depletion. We hypothesized that other infections may cause LN inflammation and fibrosis, in a process similar to that seen in HIV infection, which may lead to T cell depletion and affect vaccine responses. We studied LNs of individuals from Kampala, Uganda, before and after yellow fever vaccination (YFV) and found fibrosis in LNs that was similar to that seen in HIV infection. We found blunted antibody responses to YFV that correlated to the amount of LN fibrosis and loss of T cells, including T follicular helper cells. These data suggest that LN fibrosis is not limited to HIV infection and may be associated with impaired immunologic responses to vaccines. This may have an impact on vaccine development, especially for infectious diseases prevalent in the developing world. © The Journal Of Clinical Investigation.